Zhixian's Tech Blog

2014-12-30

How to install Mono on Ubuntu (Part 2 of 2)

Filed under: development — Tags: , , , , , — Zhixian @ 00:06:12 am

This is continuation of my previous blog post How to install Mono on Ubuntu.
This part focus on testing the installation to make sure that you have the minimal to compile C# source code and to run ASP.NET web applications.

Assumptions

  1. You have installed Apache HTTP Server
  2. You have followed the installation instructions in the previous blog post.
  3. You know how to create folder and files in Ubuntu.
  4. You know how to start a terminal session and run commands in it.
  5. You know how to navigate to other directories using terminal session.

Summary Steps

  1. Compiling and Running helloworld
  2. Create a Apache virtual host

Compiling and Running helloworld

Create a folder to hold your source code. For example, I use “dotnet”.

Projects_134

Inside this folder, create a file call helloworld.cs.

dotnet_135

Edit the contents of this file and replace it with the following:

// Hello1.cs
public class Hello1
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      System.Console.WriteLine("Hello, World!");
   }
}

After saving the file, start a new terminal session and navigate to the directory where you saved the file.

zhixian@SARA: ~-Projects-dotnet_136

The command to run the compiler for C# in Mono is mcs. Compile helloworld.cs by entering the following at the command-line:

mcs helloworld.cs

After running this command, you should see that you have a file call helloworld.exe in your project directory.

zhixian@SARA: ~-Projects-dotnet_137

To test run your application, enter the following command at the command-line.

./helloworld.exe

zhixian@SARA: ~-Projects-dotnet_138

You should see the words “Hello, World!” after you run the command.

Create a Apache virtual host

Now that we are sure the compiler for C# works, we will test if mod_mono can run ASP.NET applications.
What we are going to do at this section is to create a virtual host on Apache to host our ASP.NET application.

Steps

  1. Define ASP.NET application
  2. Configure Apache virtual host

Define ASP.NET application

We are going to create our test application in this section.

Create a folder to hold the contents of your ASP.NET web application.
In my case, I choose to put my file in a directory call zxtech.

Websites_139

Inside this folder, create a file call test.aspx.

zxtech_141

Edit test.aspx and replace the contents with the following:

<%@ Page Language="C#" %>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html>
  <head>
    <title>ASP Test Page</title>
  </head>
  <body>
        <form id="form1" runat="server">
          <asp:label id="lbl1" runat="server">ASP Test Page</asp:label>
        </form>
  </body>
</html>

test.aspx (~-Yandex.Disk-Websites-zxtech) - gedit_142

Save the file.
After saving the file, note the full path to the folder (press <CTRL>-L or press the button next to the Location buttons.)

You will need this information when configuring Apache virtual host.

zxtech_140

Configure Apache virtual host

Ok. Here’s where things starts to get a little sticky.
At your terminal session, navigate to Apache HTTP server’s sites directory (its /etc/apache2/sites-available/ by default) by entering the following command at the command-line:

cd /etc/apache2/sites-available/

zhixian@SARA: -etc-apache2-sites-available_143

By default, there should be 2 files in the folder, 000-default.conf and default-ssl.conf.
Make a copy of 000-default.conf for your virtual host (I am picking dev.zxtech.web as my virtual host name) by running the following command:

sudo cp ./000-default.conf ./dev.zxtech.web.conf

zhixian@SARA: -etc-apache2-sites-available_144

After the file is copied, edit the file.
Because the file is in folder owned by the superuser, you need to run the following command to edit the file:

gksudo gedit ./dev.zxtech.web.conf &

zhixian@SARA: -etc-apache2-sites-available_145

After you opened the file, you should see the following:

dev.zxtech.web.conf (-etc-apache2-sites-available) - gedit (as superuser)_146

Things to edit on this file:

  1. ServerName
  2. ServerAdmin (optional)
  3. DocumentRoot (optional)

ServerName refers to the your virtual host name that you will be using. In the below screen shot, this will be dev.zxtech.web.

ServerAdmin refers to an e-mail address that will be used when people needs to contact the server administator.

DocumentRoot refers to the folder where you store your ASP.NET application files. This will be the location of the folder that that you have noted in the previous section. In the below screen shot, this will be /home/zhixian/Yandex.Disk/Websites/zxtech.

After update, the file should look something like the below.

-dev.zxtech.web.conf (-etc-apache2-sites-available) - gedit (as superuser)_147

Things to add on this file:

  1. DirectoryIndex
  2. MonoAutoApplication
  3. AddHandler
  4. MonoServerPath
  5. MonoDebug
  6. MonoSetEnv
  7. MonoApplications
  8. Apache directory configuration
  9. Apache location configuration

DirectoryIndex refers to the default documents that will be use if user navigate to the folder without specifying a specific filename.

MonoAutoApplication refers to using a scheme in mod_mono that allows accounts on a machine to deploy ASP.NET pages without requiring to do any configuration. I prefer to do manual configuration, and so am disabling it here.

AddHandler designates files with specified file extensions to be process by mod_mono.

MonoServerPath allows you to specify the version of Mono runtime to use.
In the below screen shot, we are using the latest mono-server 4 which is equivalent to using ASP.NET 4.0.

MonoSetEnv is use to set an environment variable for use with the Mono run time used to execute the web application.
In the screen shot below, I defined MONO_IOMAP.
MONO_IOMAP is defined to take care of case-sensitivity issues. You can read more about it here.

MonoApplications is use to tell mod_mono that the ASP.NET application exists at the root directory of the web site (/) and this root directory maps (:) to the folder /home/zhixian/Yandex.Disk/Websites/zxtech (hence “/:/home/zhixian/Yandex.Disk/Websites/zxtech”)

Aside from the above Mono configuration, you may need to add an Apache directory configuration section especially if you are are hosting the web application files outside of Apache’s default DocumentRoot location which is /var/www/

 <Directory /home/zhixian/Yandex.Disk/Websites/zxtech>
 Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
 AllowOverride None
 Require all granted
 </Directory>

You will also need to add an Apache location configuration section.

 <Location "/">
 Order allow,deny
 Allow from all
 MonoSetServerAlias dev.zxtech.web
 SetHandler mono
 SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
 SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI "\.(?:gif|jpe?g|png)$" no-gzip dont-vary
 </Location>
 <IfModule mod_deflate.c>
 AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/xml text/javascript
 </IfModule>

After you added the sections, your configuration file should look like the below.

dev.zxtech.web.conf (-etc-apache2-sites-available) - gedit (as superuser)_153

After defining the configuration file, you can enable the website.

sudo a2ensite dev.zxtech.web.conf

zhixian@SARA: -etc-apache2-sites-available_151

The last step to get our virtual name hosting working is to edit our hosts located at /etc/hosts

zhixian@SARA: ~_150

In your text editor, add a line

127.0.1.1 dev.zxtech.web

hosts (-etc) - gedit (as superuser)_154

After this is done, you can navigate to http://dev.zxtech.web/test.aspx to test your sample web application.
You should see:

ASP Test Page - Firefox Developer Edition_155

Reference

A nice tutorial to C# can be found here (http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa288463%28v=vs.71%29.aspx)

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2014-11-21

How to configure ServerName directive globally for Apache HTTP Server

After installing Apache HTTP Server, you may notice that that when you restart the service, you may get the following annoying message:

Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1. Set the ‘ServerName’ directive globally to suppress this message

zhixian@SARA: ~_017

To get rid of this message, you need to define a ServerName for your Apache HTTP Server.
To achieve this, you need to:

  1. Define a “fqdn.conf” file in Apache HTTP Server’s available configuration folder.
  2. Enable the “fqdn.conf” configuration
  3. Restart Apache HTTP Server

Implementation Details

1. Define “fqdn.conf”

Apache HTTP Server’s available configuration folder can be found at:

/etc/apache2/conf-available/

To create the “fqdn.conf” file, enter the following command into a terminal session:

echo “ServerName localhost” | sudo tee /etc/apache2/conf-available/fqdn.conf

zhixian@SARA: ~_018

What this command does is to write the string “ServerName localhost” into a file “fqdn.conf” at “/etc/apache2/conf-available/”.

2. Enable configuration

To enable the “fqdn.conf” that we just added to Apache HTTP Server, enter the following command in a terminal session:

sudo a2enconf fqdn.conf

zhixian@SARA: ~_019

3. Restart Apache HTTP Server

To restart the Apache HTTP service, enter the following command in a terminal session:

sudo service apache2 reload

zhixian@SARA: ~_020

After you restart the service, you should no longer see set “ServerName directive globally” message.

Reference:

http://askubuntu.com/questions/256013/could-not-reliably-determine-the-servers-fully-qualified-domain-name

2014-11-20

How to install Apache HTTP Server onto Ubuntu (Trusty Tahr)

Filed under: computing — Tags: , , , , , , — Zhixian @ 23:18:11 pm

To install Apache HTTP server on to Trusty Tahr, simply enter the following command in a terminal session:

sudo apt-get install apache2

zhixian@SARA: ~_013zhixian@SARA: ~_015

After installation is complete, you can access your web server by starting a new browser session and entering “localhost” for url. You should get a screen like the below:

Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works - Mozilla Firefox_016

2010-07-03

Enabling user directories on Apache

Filed under: computing — Tags: , , , — Zhixian @ 01:32:07 am

To enable user directories on Apache, follow the following steps:

Go to Apache’s enabled modules directory. The default directory location should be “/etc/apache2/mods-enabled”:
cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled

Create symbolic links from mods-available to mods-enabled directory using the following commands:
sudo ln -s ../mods-available/userdir.load
sudo ln -s ../mods-available/userdir.conf

Restart Apache:
sudo apache2ctl restart
At this point, user directories should be enabled. To test it out perform the following steps:

Go back to your user directory and create a folder named “public_html” cd\
mkdir public_html

On your browser navigate to the location “http://localhost/~username“. For example, since my username is “zhixian”, I would type the following as URL in my browser: http://localhost/~zhixian/
Since the public_html folder is empty, you will get an empty directory listing. Add a “index.html” file to set the initial content.

Notes on Apache server

Filed under: computing, Uncategorized — Tags: , , — Zhixian @ 01:20:07 am

A few things to note for Apache server:

The default document root directory is:
/var/www

The default installation directory is:
/etc/apache2

The main Apache server configuration file is located at:
/etc/apache2/apache2.conf

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